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Jaadis – The Ceramic Jars For Pickles

 

 

 

 

These beautiful ceramic jaadis you see in the pictures are used for storing pickles.These are known as pingani jaadi or peengan jaadi in south India meaning that they are made out of porcelain.These double colour beauties mostly in white and brown combination are pride of the kitchen few decades ago.They come in various sizes from huge jaadis for storing pickles for the entire year consumption for those large combined families to small ones to store ghee and curds for daily consumption. These marvellous jaadis come in different shapes but invariably in double colours of brown and white. The standard shape is a tall and cylindrical called kola jaadi. They come in the shape of yellow pumpkin called gummadikaya jaadi or Parangi jaadi. They also come with big belly with narrow base and opening and these are called gundrapujaadi. While in entire south they are called Jaadi (singular) in Kerala state alone they are called Bharani. In plural, they are called jaadis or jaadeelu.

With declining of combined families and increasing mini families in tiny apartments, the concept of storing anything for a long time has given way to use and throw culture. With the onset of such culture the large jaadis have given way to plastic small bottles that meant for use and throw. These lovely jaadis have disappeared from the households and became the rare items for antique collectors. I am fortunate enough to inherit and collect some of these enchanting pickle jars. Some of the families who still value the traditional way of living and who knew the value of storing items in porcelain containers still consider old is gold and use these jaadis. Our elders believed that the health depends on not only what we eat but also what vessels we use for cooking, storing and serving what we eat and drink. They used Brass and bronze vessels for cooking, copper vessels for water storage and jaadis for storing items like pickles, and many other food items and they believed that the properties of the vessel mixed with the food enhance the nutritional value of the food and keep them healthy and happy. Our experience shows our elders were immune to the several diseases that the present generation is suffering. The traditionalists claim that the vessels used for cooking in the bygone days made the fundamental difference.They lived much healthier and happier than our present generation which discarded our traditional cooking and eating style and diverged to fast food and micro woven grade plastics.

 

Jadeelu in a row

 

I have grown in Jaadi culture. We used to have these handsome jaadis of all sizes in our house in my village Someswaram. We were having large jaadis for storingdifferent varieties of mango pickleslike aavakaya, menthikaya, maagaya and tokkudupachadi for the entire year. The smaller sizes of the jaadis were used to take a small portion of the pickles from the large jaadis for a weekly consumption and for daily serving. Once the small jaadis were empty they were recharged with the pickles and this process continued till the large jaadis were empty. Normally the mango pickle season starts from the months of April and May and all the jaadis will be full with pickles. As we start consuming they become empty sometimes by February or March. By then tender raw mangoes start coming in and my mother used to prepare temporary pickles out of these mangoes.These temporary mango pickles are not prepared as ceremonially as the annual pickles and there will be some compromise on the quality of ingredients since it is meant to be provisional and has to be consumed in a short time till we make the standard variety of pickles.

 

Cylindrical jaadis- kola jaddelu

 

The Pickle season is a busy time in our house. The jaadis are cleaned and sun dried.There should not be any iota of moisture in the jaadis since moister spoils the pickle.They were sun dried at least three consecutive days. After that they are covered with lid and a cloth and kept them in the corner of the kitchen where nobody will enter.Then there will be exchange of notes with relatives and neighbours as to what varietyof mangoes,chillies and mustard seeds they would be buying and from where and their relative merits and demerits.There will be discussion on what they purchased last year and how good or bad the results were.The next major ingredient is oil and the success of the annual pickle depends on the quality of the oil. Only nuvvulanoone (oil extracted from sesame seeds also known as gingili seeds) is used for preparing aavakaaya and other pickles. My maternal grandfather used to cultivate gingili oil seeds and he used to send us for our annual consumption of gingili oil. For aavakaaya season we used to take the  sun dried sesame seeds to our local oil man known as telukuliwadu who has a native oil crusher comprising wooden drum with a log like crushing pestle powered by a bullock and the entire crushing devise is called ganugu. The Telukuliwadu would keep the gingili seeds and a little bit of jaggery into the wooden drum, keep the wooden crusher in the position, make few adjustments and give command to the bullock to move.The bullock will move in circular motion and the crusher will move around the inside of the wooden drum crushing the oil seeds. After 2 hours of slow and constant crushing the oil will form in the basin of the drum which will be collected. I used to sit on the wooden plank connecting the crusher and the bullock and have a circular ride. The oil is transferred into the brass oil cans and carried to the house.

 

2 litre jaadi with big round belly- gundrapu jaadi with manufacturer “Parrys” name inscription

 

We used to have dedicated mango trees exclusively meant for aavakaaya pickle. People will go to the tree owner and purchase the required quantity from him. Only selected mangoes will be plucked. Fortunately we had our own mango tree in our fields and our requirement of mangoes used to come from this tree.The remaining mangoes will be left on the tree to be plucked latter for mango fruits.

Once all ingredients are in place my mother would consult the panchangam, the Hindu calendar for a good day and time for preparing the aavakaya. Aavakaaya should be prepared when here is no bad time like Varjam, durmuhurtham, Rahukalam and yamagandam, It is a custom in those days to invite   elders to prepare the avakkaya. It is a way of showing respect and honouring the elders.My mother used to invite the wife of my grandfather’s brother; a widow, by name Pullamma for this auspicious ceremony. Aavakaya is prepared with devotion and under strict hygienic conditions. Pullammagaru is to put pasupubottlu(haldi dots )to the jaadis since jaadis are considered as Lakshmi pradam and they are treated with adoration.  Pullammagaru is to wear a madibatta(a cloth washed, dried and untouched by others) after taking a head bath and then only she would start preparing aavakaya. The entire family is to participate actively and the ceremony is to be a fun and great get- together. My paternal uncle, Baapi Raju garu, used to cut the mangos into right size pieces with the special mango chopper called mamidikaya kathipeeta. Great skill is involved in cutting a mango for the purpose of aavakaya since the mango has to be sliced with a single stroke.The mango pulp should not be pressed but sliced.The size of the cut pieces is very important in the preservation of the aavakaya.If the pieces are too small they will lose the crispness and become soggy. If the pieces are too big the essence of the mango juices will not be released into the mixture with the result we do not get the right consistency and taste. The mango should be cut along with the Tenka (seed).Me and my sisters used to clean the cut mango pieces with a clean cloth and take out the Jeedi (kernel) from the Tenka and the thin layer between the tenka and the jeedi. My mother used to help her by providing necessary ingredients, utensils and jaadis timely to make her job easy. Pullammagaru her own recipe and style for preparing aavakaya. 

 

Raw mangoes for aavakaya pickle
Raw mangoes for aavakaya pickle

 

Cutting the raw mangoes with special cutter (maamidi kaya Katti peeta)
Cutting the raw mangoes with special cutter (maamidi kaya Katti peeta)

 

Before starting the process Pullammagaru used  to do a prayer and put pasupubottle (haldi dots )to the jaadis since jaadis are considered as Lakshmi pradam and they are treated with adoration. After preparing the aavakaya ooragaya (pickle) it is stored in jaadilu and it is topped with a layer of oil .The oil prevents any moister coming into contact with the aavakayapachadi. After that the mouth of the jaadi is covered with clean white cloth called vasin iin Telugu and vaedu in Tamil and put the lid over the cloth.The secret behind covering the opening of the jaadi with cotton cloth is that cotton cloth will absorb the moisture around the jaadi and prevent the moisture thus entering into the jar. Even by chance any moisture enters the jaadi, the oil layer will prevent the moister come in contact with the pickle. The aavakaya is allowed to do its magical chemistry for three days and during these 3 days it is not disturbed.After three days my mother will wear madibatta and open the jaadi, stir the contents thoroughly with a ladle .She will transfer a small portion into a small jaadi for us to have a first time taste of the new aavakaya. From the day of preparation of aavakaya till the third day people wait impatiently to taste the first morsel of this red delight. Then starts the process of distribution to kith and kin. The aavakaya is first distributed to the families of sons and daughters. Small quantities of aavakaya packed in small jaadis or glass bottles is distributed to relatives and neighbours as an exchange of good will and  wait for their compliments. Similarly neighbours and relatives would also reciprocate the nice gesture of exchanging aavakaya. This mutual exchange is a part of the aavakaya culture.

After the demise of Pullammagaru, my mother took charge of the annual aavakaya preparation ceremony. Subsequently my wife Ramana got interested in preparation of the special Andhra ooragayalu and she used to prepare the pickles with utmost tradition and devotion. She will personally go and select the red chillies. She will bring two types of chillies. One the traditional hot chillies meant for pickles and second the Kashmiri variety which are not so hot but will give beautiful natural red colour to the aavakaya. Her pickles are a real success and she will invariably get lot of compliments from the friends and relatives. Even while we were in Mumbai, the great metro city, Ramana managed to get the traditional Gujarati women who will hand pound the chillies with the wooden rolu and rokali (large size mortar and pestle).After the decline of hand pounding services, she started using the milled powder.She would personally go to the market and select the mangoes after tasting them for correct pulupu and kanda (sourness and pulp). She is now a veteran in preparing traditional Andhra ooragayalu and her best bet is Menthi kaayapickle.

The favourite pickle of Tamilians “Vadumaangai“ is stored in the large peengan jaadis.Vadumaangai is prepared with tender green mangoes and preserved for a year.Similarly in Kerala “Uppumanga” is prepared with tender mangoes and this pickle is stored in brine in large Bharani.

 

The curd and butter milk is also stored in Jaadilu. During my days in our village, If any guests come to our house and adequate quantity of curds were not available,I used to go to the curd vendors and fetch the curds.The ladies in the farming community in our village used to sell curds stored in small jaadis. You have to pick up the number of jaadis you require and the curd is measured by jaadis. We used to take 3 or 4 jaadis and return the empty jaadis after use. Sometimes my mother used to keep a jaadi full of curds next to the plate and the guests would empty the jaadis. The curds prepared in jaadis taste excellent.

These jaadis are neutral in nature and do not affect or alter the taste,flavour and colour of the contents .The porcelain is a good preservative and keeps germs, bacteria and fungus away and thus the ideal jars to preserve pickles, chutneys and other long stored food items.We should admire the wisdom of our elders in selecting the ceramic jaadis for storage of food items .In our house and in my relatives house the jaadis are used to store jaggery, tamarind, turmeric, red chilli powder, salt, Gongoora chutney, tomato  pickle, usirikai(amla)chutney, drumsticks pickle and Ghee.

Special Red chillies for aavakaya
Special Red chillies for aavakaya

 

Cut mangoes ready for aavakaya pickle

 

Mixing the ingredients of aavakaya

 

 

How to make Andhra Special MamidikayaAavakaya

Ingredients:

Raw mangoes: 8 numbers medium sized (approximately 9 cups of Cut Mango)

Avalapodi (Mustard powder)      : 2 cups
Karampodi ( Chilli powder)          : 2 cups                             

Uppu (salt)   powdered                   : 1.5 cups

Menthulu (Fenugreek Seeds)       : 2 tbsp

Pasupu (Turmeric)                           : 1/2tbsp
Nuvvulanoone (Gingili Oil)           : 3 cups.
Garlic flakes                                         : 1/2 cup (optional)

 

 

 

Procedure

 

  •  Step-1: Clean the mangoes with water and dry them thoroughly with a clean dry cloth.Cut them into 12 pieces along with the seed. Remove jeedi and the thin layer.wipe them with cotton clean cloth.Keep them aside 
  •  Step-2: Take a big bowl that will accommodate all the ingredients. Place mustard powder, salt, turmeric power, garlic flakes and the fenugreek seeds in the bowl and mix them thoroughly.Add little oil to wet them. 
  • Step-3:Put handful of mango pieces into the masala mixture and roll them in the mixture so that the entire surface of the mango pieces are covered with the masala powder.
  •  Step-4: Take a dry Jaadi and pour little oil into the jaadi to wet the bottom. Now place the marinated mango pieces in the jaadi. Put little oil on the top of the mango pieces. Repeat this process till all the cut mangoes are covered with masala powder and placed in the jaadi.
  • Step-4: Put some oil on the top of the pickle and cover the opening of the jaadi with the lid. Then cover the opening with a clean cotton cloth and seal with a rope. This ritual of covering and tying the jadi opening with the cloth is known as  vasini kattadam 
  •  Step-5: The jaadi should be left alone for three consecutive days without disturbing the contents.In these 3 days the mango pieces,the masala powders, the oil and the salt mix and create the magical taste, texture and flavour that is unique to aavakaya. Remove the seal after 3 days and mix the aavakaya with a long dry ladle.Notice the red oil floating on top of the pickle known as oota. Oota is the sour juice of the mango extracted by the salt and mixed with the chilli essence and the oil. 
  • Step-6: Now the Andhra special  fresh maamidi kaiaavakai ooragaya is ready for serving
Aavakaya preparation in progress

 

Mango pieces marinated with pickle masala

 

 

 

 

Varieties in aavakaya

 

In aavakaya itself there are so many verities.The traditional and proper aavakaya is prepared invariably in all Andhra houses and also some few different varieties of the aavakaya are also prepared. I am listing here some of the other varieties of the aavakaya.

  • Bellam Aavakaya: Bellam( jaggery) is added to the aavakaya to get that experience of sweet and hot taste at the same time coupled with the sour taste of mango and spicy taste of mustard powder.
  • Allam Aavakaya: Ginger garlic paste is added to the regular aavakaya for that extra spicy effect.
  • Gutty Aavakaya: The mango is not cut into pieces but sliced to the half way through from the top end and half way through from the bottom end. AAvakaya spices are stuffed into the sliced sections.Rest of the process is same.
  • Pachakaram Aavakaya: Instead of red chilli powder, yellow chilli powder is used. Yellow chillies are grown in the area around Gollaprolu and Pitthapura in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh) .The yellow chilies are also known as gollaprolu  mirapakayalu which have a unique taste.
  • Nuvvula aavakaya: powdered sesame is added to the aavakaya.
  • Pulihora aavakaya: Pulihora talimpu or seasoning (known as Chaunk or tadka in Hindi) is added to the regular aavakaya for that special flavour.
  • Menthi aavakaya: Menthi powder (fenugreek powder) is added along with the mustard powder in this variant of aavakaya for that peculiar menthi taste.
  • Vellulli aavakaya: Vellullipayalu (garlic flakes with the skin are added to aavakaya. The oota will enter into the garlic flakes and when chewed gives a heady taste.
  • Yendu aavakaya: The traditional aavakaya is sun dried in the jaadi several times till the entire oota is absorbed by the mango pieces.Yendu aavakaya pieces go very well with curd rice.
  • Usiri aavakaya:In place of green mango pieces, usirikaya (Indian gooseberry) is used as it is without cutting into pieces. The Usiri kaya is pierced with a tooth pick to form small holes to facilitate flow of juices. This aavakaya has medicinal effect according to Ayurveda.
  • Dosa aavakaya: Dosakaya (Yellow cucumber) is cut into pieces and are used in preparing aavakaya in place of mango.
  • Senagal aaavakaya: Sanagalu (Bengal gram, chanaor chickpeas) are added to the regular aavakaya.
Aavakaya ready to be put in the jaadi

 

Prepared aavakaya being transferred into jaadi

 

How aavakaya is consumed

Aavakaya is consumed mainly by Andhra people.Andhra is known as the rice bowl of India and the rice is the staple food of Andhras. They have invented various chutneys, pickles and powders that go excellently with rice.Andhra is also is the place where many varietiesof chillies are grown apart from mangoes, oil seeds like sesame and groundnuts.Ghee is also available plenty in this land. Using all these locally available ingredients, Andhras have since ages are patrons of good food with varieties of side and main dishes that go exceedingly well with rice. For many Andhras, aavakaya is a main dish. They mix aavakaya along with mango pieces, the sauce like pickle along with oota and pour liberal quantity of melted hot ghee with hot rice, make a round ball and consume with relish.For an onlooker fromdifferent region it would like as if they are consuming fire. Aavakaya is also taken as a side dish to enhance the taste of the main dish.The main dish of Mudda pappu with rice and ghee tastes heavenly with the aavakaya pickle as a side dish. Curd rice with aavakaya is a great combination. Aavakaya pickle is also taken as a side dish forIddli,dosa,Dibbarotti,and uppupindi. Aavakaya tastes fabulous within three months of its preparation (during this period it is fondly called Kothavakaya)and after that it slowly loses its zing.

Jaadeelu

 

The story of Jaadi

It is a wonder how jaadis emerged into our life and culture and ultimately settled as containers to our traditional pickles and other food items.In the early days all the pickles, curds, ghee etc are stored in earthen pots.I guess that During the British times they used to import chemicals in the glazed ceramic containers and after the consumption of the chemicals the empty porcelain jars are sold to the public. Because of their neutral nature people found them to be the ideal containers to use in place of earthen pots which are fragile in nature whereas porcelain containers are strong and heavy. The British standardised on the double colour of brown and white only to indicate that they contain chemicals and should be handle with care.With the popularity of these jars as a containers for various Indian food items,t hey are manufactured in India with the same colour combination for use in Indian market. These porcelain containers are subsequently acquired a native flavour and called as jaadis. Most of the jaadis I have seen carry the embossed inscription “Parrys”. Parrys is a famous British company established with its head office in Madras, the present Chennai,and the area near this company’s office even now known as Parrys corner. Subsequently Murugappa group acquired Parry and company. The porcelain division of Murugappa group stopped manufacture of Jaadis and are concentrating on bathroom porcelain utilities under brand name Parryware.

 

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Antique Brass Tiruchoornam Bharani (Container)

 

Tiruchoornam Bharani in the shape of fish.
Tiruchoornam Bharani in the shape of fish.

This wonderful art object in the form of a fish is actually a Bharani (Container) made out of Brass metal used for storage of red powder called Tiruchoornam. Tiruchoornam is used by Vaishnavite sect of Hindu Brahmin Community to apply Namam, a religious mark on their forehead.

Vaishnavism and the Namam 

vishnu namam
Namam depicting the Vishnu Padam (foot) in “U” shape in white colour and red colour line in between “U” shape depicting Goddess Lakshmi.

Namam mark is a visible sign of a person belonging to a particular sect of Hindu religion. The followers of Vishnu, called Vaishnavites, apply this mark on their foreheads in “U” shape depicting the foot of Lord Vishnu. The “U” shape mark also contains a red straight line in the centre of “U” depicting goddess Lakshmi the consort of Vishnuand Goddess of wealth and prosperity.

Priest of Vishnu temple wearing the Vaishnavite namam.
Priest of Vishnu temple wearing the Vaishnavite namam.

The centre line is made up of red ochre powder which is called Sindhoor or Tiruchoornam or Trichoornam. The “U” shape in white colour is made out of white soft stone known as Sudda. The namam mark is also called Tilak mark.

Dwaja Stambham
Vaishnavite tilak on the Dwaja Stambha (Flag Post) of Vishnu temple in Secunderabad, India.

The red line was originally drawn from a red stone available within the ant hill. The ants usually build their ant hill on top of the red stones. When the stone is rubbed in water, a red colour paste is formed.

Sudda - White stone
Sudda – White stone for marking the “U” shape in white.

In the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya (Tradition), the Namam is made from the white colour mud found in anthills. The scriptures reveal that the mud from the base of a Tulasi plant and the white colour mud from the base of the ant hill are pure and ideal for making Namam.

This Fish shaped Bharani is used for storing Tiruchoornam that is red powder.

Trichoornam powder shown in a brass tray.
Trichoornam powder shown in a brass tray.

Significance of fish shape for Tiruchoornam Bharani

Lord Vishnu is the supreme God for Vaishnavites. Whenever the need arises, Vishnu takes avatars (incarnations) and comes down to earth to destroy the evil and to protect and uphold virtue on earth. One of his avatars is Matsyavatar (matsya means fish and avatar means incarnation). To commemorate Matsyavatar the artisan has made the Bharani in the shape of Fish.

How to apply Namam on the forehead?

The white colour stone is cut into small sizes in the shape of handy slabs for easy handling and use. One can put some water in the palm and rub the white stone on the wet palm till you get a white paste.

Rubbing white stone on the wet palm to form the white paste.
Rubbing white stone on the wet palm to form the white paste.

This paste can be applied on the forehead in “U” shape by the help of a thin metal rod or wooden stick the size of a tooth pick. Some experienced people use fingers directly without using any device. The white paste will dry in no time forming a bright “U” shaped mark.

Preparation of Tiruchoornam paste for namam.
Preparation of Tiruchoornam paste for namam.

Tiruchoornam powder is used for central red line. The powder is kept on the palm and few drops of water is added and rubbed nicely with the thumb to have a nice red paste. Central line is drawn with the red paste using a tooth pick like device in between the white lines.

Namam is a visual form of Lord Vishnu Since Vaishnavait Tilak mark is itself considered as a visual form of Lord Vishnu, the powder used in marking the Tilak mark is given much importance. The devotional reverence to the red powder can be felt that they make a specially crafted Bharani in shape of Matsya (fish) to adore Matsyavatara of Lord Vishnu.

Design and workmanship of Brass Trichoornam Bharani

The antique Tiruchoornam Bharani is made out of brass and is handmade. The belly of the fish which is very bulky stores good amount of powder. The mouth of the fish is used to fill up or empty the powder. The mouth of the fish can be closed by the wonderfully designed lid.

Fish and the cap shown separately.
Fish and the cap shown separately.

The lid has a handmade screw system having 5 threads. Its knob has diamond cut design having 13 diamond cut faces. The lid can be closed tightly due to threads and make the powder leak proof. With 13 diamond cuts, the screwing and unscrewing can be done smoothly and efficiently with a tight grip and there is no chance of slippage at the time of handling.

 Cap hand carved with 5 threads forming the screw and 13 diamond cut surfaces.
Cap hand carved with 5 threads forming the screw and 13 diamond cut surfaces.

The fish scales on the body are beautifully hand carved. Similarly, the fins on both sides are symmetrically hand finished. The gill covers over the eyes are neatly shaped. The eyes are realistic and lively. The symmetry and anatomy of the body is perfectly carved. This is a rare piece of religious artefact.

Beautifully carved fish scales on the body, fins on both sides, bright eyes and gill covers above the eyes. All hand carved.
Beautifully carved fish scales on the body, fins on both sides, bright eyes and gill covers above the eyes. All hand carved.

The story of Matsyavatar (Fish Incarnation)

This is the first Avatar of Lord Vishnu. This happened in Chakshusha  Manvantara in Krita Yuga. The story of Matsyavatara is found in Shrimad Bhagavatha, 8th sanda (Chapter).

At the end of one of the Kalpas, Lord Brahma felt sleepy and opened his mouth for a yawn. Without his knowledge the four Vedas slipped from his opened mouth. A Daitya (demon) by name Hayagreeva noticed the Vedas and snatched them. Lord Vishnu observed the theft of Vedas by Hayagreeva and decided to retrieve the Vedas and return them to Lord Brahma to continue his creation in the next Kalpa which is a day break for Brahma. According to Brahma calendar, one day of Brahma is equal to one Kalpa on earth. Lord Vishnu instead of directly attacking him and retrieving the Vedas chose to wait and combine this task with another important work of saving his Bhakta (disciple) and noble king Satya Vrata from the forthcoming Pralaya (deluge). Lord Vishnu decides to descend on to earth from his abode Vaikuntam in the form of a fish to accomplish these two tasks.

Matsyavatar of Lord Vishnu.
Matsyavatar of Lord Vishnu.

One day King Satya Vrata was performing Sandhya Vandanam (daily ritual prayers) by offering Tarpana (offering of water) from the waters of river Kritamala. A small fish came into his cupped palms along with the waters. He slipped the fish back to waters. When he lifted second round of cupped waters, the fish reappeared in the waters and this incident kept on repeating. Finally, King Satya Vrata placed the fish in his Kamandalu and took it to his palace and kept it in a tub. The fish out grew the tub next day. He then transferred it to a well, to a pond, to a lake, to the river and finally to the sea to accommodate the growing form of the fish. Satya Vrata realised that the fish is not an ordinary fish and prayed to God to reveal the mystery of the fish. Then the fish spoke and   revealed that he is the Lord Vishnu in the form of fish.

Fish shaped Bharani shown with fish mouth opened
Fish shaped Bharani shown with fish mouth opened

Lord Vishnu pleased with his Bhakta asked him what he desired. Satya Vrata said that he did not want anything for himself but wished to be instrumental in saving the worthy souls from the impending Pralaya.

Lord Vishnu in Matsyavatara told Satya Vrata that a (a great deluge) will inundate earth on the seventh day and destroy everything on earth. Lord Vishnu told Satya Vrata that he will send a huge boat and Satya Vrata should be on-board with all herbs, seeds, beings of all variety along with Sapta Rishis (seven sages) who will survive the deluge and enter into next Kalpa .The fish further instructed that he should use Vasuki ,the great serpent, as a rope and tie the boat to the horn of the fish. Satya Vrata followed all the instructions of the fish and the entire crew of the boat were saved from the great deluge. During the sailing of the boat throughout the night of Brahma, Lord Vishnu gave Upadesha (divine preaching) to Satya Vrata and the seven sages and his Upadesha later came to be known as Matsya Purana. After the boat crew reached safety the great fish attacked the demon Hayagreeva and retrieved the Vedas from him. He then handed over the Vedas to Lord Brahma.

Fish Bharini shown in a different position.
Fish Bharini shown in a different position.

Thus, in Matsyavatara, Lord Vishnu saves his devotees, destroys the demon Hayagreeva and restores the great Vedas to Brahma. Satya Vrata is known as Vaivaswatha Manu in the Chakshusha Manvantara.

Vaivasvata is a Sanskrit word meaning “sun-born” and he is born to the Great Sun God. In religious scriptures, Vaivasvata is a sage and he is also one of the Manus, or divine lawgivers, who have shown the way to mankind how to lead a right life.

Influence of religion on art:

similarities between Matsyavatara and trichoornam Bharani
Similarities of fish between Matsyavatara picture and Trichoornam Bharani

The brass antique container in the shape of a fish for sindhoor powder is the best example as to how religion influences the art. The artisan has depicted the entire story of Matsyavatara of Lord Vishnu in a simple object like powder container in the form of a fish but crafted with extraordinary skill. In ancient times art emerged from myth, and religion, and it has maintained its compelling influence through its sacred aura. The intense spiritual and religious beliefs have played a dominant role in influencing the Indian art. The Indian artists visualized the various aspects of Gods and Goddesses as mentioned in the scriptures and infused these aspects into the objects of everyday life for religious rituals like the application of Namam on the forehead by the Vaishnavites and the fish container for the red powder Trichoornam for their Namam.